Pre-Columbian Americas Phases

Regional Division of Pre-Columbian Americas’ Major Archaeological Cultural Phases

Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica includes Mexico and the Mayan Territories. Lower Central America and the Caribbean include Costa Rica, Panama, and the Islands. South America includes Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Argentina.

Mesoamerica

The major archaeological cultural phases in Pre-Columbian Mexico include Olmec, Monte Alto, Monte Albán, Maya, Teotihuacan, Michoacan, Zapotec, Jalisco, Nayarit, Colima, Mezcala, Chupicuaro, Veracruz, Tarascan, Mixtec, Tula, Toltec, Casas Grande, and Aztec.

The Maya civilization area is divided into three zones: northern lowlands, southern lowlands, and highlands, encompassing present-day countries such as southern Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, Belize, Guatemala, western Honduras, and northern El Salvador.

Lower Central America and the Caribbean

The principal archaeological cultural phases in pre-Columbian Costa Rica are Guanacaste-Nicoya and Chorotegas.

The major archaeological cultural phases in pre-Columbian Panama are La Mula, Tonosi, Cubita, Macaracas, Veraguas, and Sitio Conte – Gran Coclé.

The major archaeological cultural phases of the Pre-Columbian Caribbean Islands are Saladoid and Taino.

South America

In Colombia, the principal archaeological cultural phases are Calima, Sinu, Chibcha, Quimbaya, San Agustin, Tairona, Cauca, Nariño, Muisca, Tumaco, and Inca.

In Ecuador, the principal archaeological cultural phases include Las Vegas, Valdivia, Machalilla, Cotocollao, Chorrera, Narrio, La Tolita, Guangala, Jamacoaque, Jambeli, Capuli, Bahia, Puruha, Cuasmal, Manteno, Huancavilca, Milagro – Quevedo, Atacames, Canari, and Inca.

In Peru, the principal archaeological cultural phases are Chavin, Huari/Wari, Paracas, Vicus, Recuay, Nazca, Salinar, Mochica/Moche, Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku, Chimu, Ica, Chancay, and Inca.

In Argentina, the principal archaeological cultural phase is Condorhuasi-Alamito.

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